Swahili Adjective Agreement
There are no articles on Swahili. A word like Kitabu “book” can mean “the book” or “a book” depending on the context. If the distinction is to be made, demonstratives or adjectives can be used to provide various nuances of meaning like kitabu hicho “the book (above)”, kitabu kimoja “a book”, kitabu fulani “any (certain) book”, kitabu chochote “any book (never). While in English, an adjective does not change when the noun changes, in Swahili, an adjective must correspond to the class of noun. For example: the adjective -ingin “other” sometimes receives type bending prefixes found with determinators that follow a verbal pattern rather than a nominal pattern. In particular, the forms Lingin in sixth, ingin or yingin in class 9 and Zingin in 10th can be heard. Some spokespeople also use an e in these classes: Jengine, Lengine, Nyengine, Yengine and Zengine, who are sometimes present. These forms are not considered standard, although they can be heard frequently. The standard forms are respectively Jingin for class 6 and Nyingin for classes 9 and 10e   In Swahili, it is not only adjectives and manifestations that change, verbs, modifiers and particles also change.
The term “adjective”, as applied to Swahili and most other bantuary languages, generally applies only to a rather limited set of words. But more broadly, it can refer to any word that modifies a noun. This is where meaning is used. Adjectives in the strict sense of the term bantu are referred to in this article as “true adjectives”. True adjectives in Swahili can be divided into two categories: volatile adjectives that accept a prefix that indicates their speaker`s class of nouns and immutable adjectives that do not accept any prefixes. All adjectives have one thing in common: they all follow the noun they modify and, apart from simple adjectives, require some kind of prefix whose class corresponds to the previous noun. The different types of adjectives reflect the different prefixes used: animate nouns (i.e. those that are not in classes 1/2) usually take as if they were part of it. Most volatile adjectives have stems beginning with a consonant.
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